考研英语语法:虚拟语气知多少威澳门尼斯人注

来源:http://www.gledmarket.com 作者:威澳门尼斯人注册送58 人气:105 发布时间:2019-04-26
摘要:虚拟语气是报考硕士[微博]葡萄牙共和国语阅读掌握、完形填空和翻译八个很广阔的语法现象。可是其格局多,许多考生在认清辨识上有一定难度。那下边跨考教育[微博]肖方方先生因而

  虚拟语气是报考硕士[微博]葡萄牙共和国语阅读掌握、完形填空和翻译八个很广阔的语法现象。可是其格局多,许多考生在认清辨识上有一定难度。那下边跨考教育[微博]肖方方先生因而考试场点辅导我们1块儿上学一下。虚拟语气的考试场点一般在报考大学生中有四大类:if 教导的从句类;从句中(should)do

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第七2讲 虚拟语气

  句型;特殊句型类以及单用句型类。我们明日先读书第二档案的次序。

开团时间:2014.05.0五 10:30

一。考试大纲供给

  大家明白由if 指导的原则句有二种样式,一种是实际的尺度句,也就算得某事很或然发生,条件是唯恐存在的,主句中某种情况爆发的可能率也是相当高的。举个例子If you intend using humor in your talk to make people smile, youmust know how to identify shared experiences and problems。(贰零零肆。Text一)(假使你想在讲话中用风趣来使人忍俊不禁,你就非得精晓哪些辨别共同的阅历和共同的难题。)

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据说考纲的渴求,虚拟语气部分至关心尊敬要考察情态动词的选项、虚拟语气在标准化句中、在名词性从句中、在轻松句中或在普通交际中的使用等主导用法。

  另一种就非实际条件句,通过虚拟语气来表述。比如Iwould have arrived much earlier if I had not been caught in the traffic。(要不是交通堵塞,小编本会来得早一些。)在这句话中,假诺“不堵塞”,可是真实际景况形并不是那般,所以用虚拟语气。一般有陆种普及的款式:

改错题看了N遍,依旧找不失误在哪个地方?单项接纳纠结了半天,最后只好靠瞎蒙?土耳其共和国(Türkiye Cumhuriyeti)语写作无从下笔,写出来的语句总是错误百出?匈牙利(Magyarország)语学了广新岁,动名词和分词照旧傻傻分不清楚?如此那般多的阿尔巴尼亚语难点,想进入眼大学的你还想凑合多长期!继而Vicki先生搭建完整语法种类,轻巧领会语法难题、考点,为高等学校统招考试打好打算,让阿尔巴尼亚语不再拖后腿!

贰。命题导向

  一)与后天实际相反的非真实条件句,从句中用一般过去时,主句中用would/could/ should 加动词原形,be 动词的过去式为were。

课程详细情形

听大人讲语境来判别虚拟语气的例外式样是高等高校统招考试试题的要紧设题方法之一。在近期的高等高校统招考试试题中,出现了对陈说语气与虚拟语气辨析的考察。虚拟语气在各个从句中的应用是该部分的重要驾驭内容。

  If you then examined theEuropean national youth teams that feed the World Cup and professional ranks,you would find this strange phenomenon to be ever more pronounced。(200七,text 一)(查看为FIFA World Cup和职业队输赠与外人才的南美洲国家青年队,你会开采这一难以置信的地方更为理解。)

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三。复习要点

  二)与过去真相相反的非真实条件句,从句用过去完毕时,主句用would/could/should have done 。

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虚拟语气是一种特有的动词情势,说话人陈述的并不是真情,而是表明1种愿望、借使和预计等。唯有在非真实的规范化句中才使用虚拟语气,假如壹旦的规格有极大恐怕落成,用真实条件句。假诺只要的尺度不恐怕兑现或得以完成的或者性十分的小,则用虚拟语气。使用虚拟语气的情事根本有下列两种:

  If he had played lastseason,however,he would have been one of 4二. (二〇一〇 text三 )(若是他打了上个赛季,他将只是四十多少个(最高的人)中的一个)

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  1. 虚拟语气在非真实条件句中的运用

  三)与以往真相相反的非真实条件句,从句用should do 或 were to do 结构,主句中用 would /could/should 加动词原形。

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(一) if条件状语从句中的虚拟语气

  If you were to examine thebirth certificates of every soccer player in 200陆’s World Cup tournament, youwould most likely find a noteworthy quirk: elite soccer players are more likelyto have been born in the earlier months of the year than in the latermonths。(200七 text 一)(假如查阅200陆年FIFA World Cup联赛种种足球运动员的出生证,你极大概发笑八个值得注意的竟然景色:好的足球运动员都在一年的头多少个月而不是后多少个月出生。)

隔开分离死记硬背,高效开心学罗马尼亚语!

非真正条件句表示不或者落成的或达成的恐怕性一点都不大若是。条件句与主句皆须用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的时态形式有三种:

  肆)混合时态的虚拟

一步高出语法难关!

一表示与前些天事实相反的举个例子,从句的谓语动词用“动词过去式(be一般用were)”,主句的谓语动词用“should (would, could, might) 动词原形”。举个例子:

  指的是主句和从句分别表示四个时态,动词格局依据上述两种格局打开相应的变迁。

前几天就去团>>

If you were the UN Secretary General, could you stop the wars on the earth?

  If he had put all theimportant files in the safe yesterday, his boss wouldn’t be scolding him soangrily now。(借使后天她把富有主要文件都坐落保险箱中,他的业主以后也不会以此严峻的说她。)

瑞思学科立陶宛语怎么

If he had a chance, he would/should/ might/could choose to study abroad。

  伍)省if 将从句中的系动词或助动词提前到主语在此以前,产生倒装句,考生对那种样式应该了然和调控。

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二代表与过去事实相反的比方,从句的谓语动词用“had 过去分词”,主句的谓语动词用“should (would, could, might) have 过去分词”。

  Had it not for the timelyinvestment from the general public, our company would not be so thriving as itis。(一九九9)(假如不是群众投资,我们的商铺不会像明天这么发达。)

开团时间:201四.五.4 10:30

If Li Ming had spent more time on her studies, she might/would/could/should have been admitted to Tsinghua University last year。

  陆)用介词或连词表示虚拟。比如with,without, under…condition, but for 。

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三代表一种若是在今后促成的大概极小依旧根本不能够实现,从句谓语动词可用二种样式:壹动词与世长辞式 2were to 动词原形 三should 动词原形,主句谓语动词用:should (would, could, might) 动词原形。

  And if one received agrape without having to provide her token in exchange at all, the other eithertossed her own token at the researcher or out of the chamber, or refused toaccept the slice of cucumber。(二零零六text 一)(假使一头猴子以至从不用石头就能赢得葡萄,另2只猕猴就会向讨论人口扔石头,恐怕把石头扔出房间,可能拒绝接受一片胡瓜。)

离开今年上八个月的肆6级考试还剩余四十多天。单词还没背,语法不熟知,三次又三回的裸考,却总是与426分擦肩而过……别急,全世界葡萄牙语网校有增进46级授课经验的付建利先生,帮你送别裸考,决战46级!总计并选拔了历年来四陆级高频词汇和语法,并有针对的结合例子对历届四6级考试中冒出的再三词汇、语法详细讲授,直击重视,飞速突破。二月要使劲,二月不伤心!

⑵ 省略连词if 的虚构条件句中

  那是比较健康和比较便于辨其余虚拟语气,希望同学们多加练习。肖方方先生也可望广大的考生在复习的历程中把遭逢的享有长难句都进展聚焦到2个台式机上,积存自个儿的薄弱点,手艺针对巩固。

学科实际情况

一经把连接条件从句的连词if省略,必须将从句的谓语部分的助动词had, 情态动词should或系动词were等移至主语在此以前,构成倒装语序。举例:

  为尊重原创,转发请申明出处!

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Had he known my address(=If he had known my address), he would have visited me earlier。

  作品来源:跨考教育 肖方方-立陶宛共和国(Republic of Lithuania)语教学切磋室

老师介绍

Should I meet Jay Zhou some day(=If I should meet Jay Zhou some day), I might tell him that I like him.

付建利完成学业于东京(Tokyo)医中国科学技术大学学,韩语语言艺术学专门的职业。多年来在高级高校及多家有名培养和练习机构从事波兰语教学事业,讲解英美文学选读,西方文化史,CATTI笔译阅读,新定义土耳其语4等学科,中心电子金融学院花旗国高等管教育学位类型部邀请英美历史学课程教学。常年担任王长喜全国大学意国语肆陆级词汇课程、阅读课程等教学,新加坡市教育委员会人们说保加哈尔滨语大奖赛英文评选委员会委员,新加坡全体公民广播之声拉脱维亚语频道AM77四《Ask Me About名师在线》栏目嘉宾,主持《阅读Style——品读卓越力作》 以及《乌克兰(УКРАЇНА)语早餐》 等日语教学节目。在教学实行上将文化授课与文化艺术知识欣赏共冶1炉,独创新意识大利语阅读逻辑分析法等十分受正式广泛肯定。

Were I you(=If you were I), I would get on well with my teachers and classmates。

品牌介绍

【记念小诀窍】可涉嫌句首的词有多少个:had, should和were。谐音回想:一马当先“还属自个儿”。

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⑶含蓄虚拟条件句

冲破46级枷锁!

突发性,可不要条件句表示一个非真实的规格,而用部分介词短语或通过内外文中暗含某种非真实的尺度,那种句子叫做“含蓄条件句”。比方:

送别题海,和46级说拜拜!

一因而with, without, but for和动词不定式短语等代表虚拟的原则

近期就去团>>

She’d look better with shorter hair. =if she had her hair cut shorter

英孚教育课程价格表

Without your help, we could not have completed the task ahead of time. =If it had not been for your help…

虚拟语气是无数斯洛伐克(Slovak)语学者的难点,作者那里找到了虚拟语气的事无巨细语法内容,希望对大家有帮带。

But for the heavy snow, I could have gone on holiday. =If there had not been the heavy snow…

报考大学生韩语:虚拟语气知多少 (一)

She would be shocked to hear the news. =If she heard the news…

虚拟语气是报考学士土耳其共和国语阅读精晓、完形填空和翻译三个很宽泛的语法现象。但是其情势多,许多考生在认清辨识上有一定难度。那下边跨考教育肖方方老师由此考试场点指导我们一齐学习一下。虚拟语气的考点一般在报考硕士中有四大类:if 教导的从句类;从句中(should)do 句型;特殊句型类以及单用句型类。大家后天先读书第二门类。

It would be easier to do it in this way. =If you did it in this way…

大家掌握由if 引导的尺度句有二种格局,一种是潜心关注的规范句,也就视为某事很恐怕发生,条件是恐怕存在的,主句中某种情况时有发生的票房价值也是异常高的。比如If you intend using humor in your talk to make people smile, you must know how to identify shared experiences and problems.(2004。Text壹)(借使您想在开口中用幽默来使人发笑,你就非得清楚什么样鉴定分别共同的阅历和一齐的难点。)

二句中包蕴or, or else, otherwise, but等词语,暗中提示句子的某1部分(前句或后句)需用虚拟语气。

另1种就非真正条件句,通过虚拟语气来抒发。举例I would have arrived much earlier if I had not been caught in the traffic.(要不是交通堵塞,作者本会来得早一些。)在那句话中,假若“不堵塞”,不过实情并不是如此,所以用虚拟语气。一般有陆种常见的款型:

He was on business in Beijing at that time; otherwise he might have helped us。

一)与现时事实相反的非真实条件句,从句中用一般过去时,主句中用would/could/ should 加动词原形,be 动词的过去式为were.

Luckily Mary telephoned to inform me of the meeting, or would have been I absent。

If you then examined the European national youth teams that feed the World Cup and professional ranks, you would find this strange phenomenon to be ever more pronounced.(2007,text 一)(查看为FIFA World Cup和专门的学业队输赠给别人才的澳大比什凯克联邦(Commonwealth of Australia)国家青年队,你会发觉这一意想不到的境况愈发显然。)

I should have attended my friend’s wedding ceremony, but I couldn’t afford the time。

二)与过去真相相反的非真实条件句,从句用过去产生时,主句用would/could/should have done .

二.虚拟语气在名词性从句中的运用

If he had played last season,however,he would have been one of 4二. (二零零六text三 )(假设她打了上个赛季,他将只是四十一个(最高的人)中的2个)

⑴在主语从句中, 在底下的二种情景下,谓语动词平日用“should 动词原形”

三)与今后实际相反的非真实条件句,从句用should do 或were to do 结构,主句中用would /could/should 加动词原形。

一It is 形容词 that…句型。常见的形容词有important, necessary, natural, funny, strange, surprising, astonishing(令人好奇的)等。

If you were to examine the birth certificates of every soccer player in 二零零五’s World Cup tournament, you would most likely find a noteworthy quirk: elite soccer players are more likely to have been born in the earlier months of the year than in the later months.(200柒 text 一)(即使查阅二〇〇七年FIFA World Cup联赛各种足球运动员的出生证,你很恐怕发笑三个值得注意的不测景观:好的足球运动员都在一年的头多少个月而不是后多少个月出生。)

二 It is 名词 that…句型。常见的名词有pity, shame, advice, suggestion, proposal(建议,指出), requirement, request, desire, order等。

四)混合时态的虚构

3 It is 动词的过去分词 that…句型。常见的动词有advise, order, propose, request, suggest, demand, require等。

指的是主句和从句分别表示三个时态,动词情势根据上述二种格局进行对应的生成。

在以上二种句型中,主语从句的谓语动词要用“should 动词原形”, should可粗略。举个例子:

If he had put all the important files in the safe yesterday, his boss wouldn’t be scolding him so angrily now.(假如前天她把装有重要文件都位居保障箱中,他的主管娘将来也不会以此严苛的说她。)

It is important that we (should) have a good knowledge of computer in modern times。

伍)省if 将从句中的系动词或助动词提前到主语在此之前,产生倒装句,考生对那种方式应该清楚和操纵。

It is necessary that these useful expressions (should) be learnt by heart。

Had it not for the timely investment from the general public, our company would not be so thriving as it is.(199九)(如若不是大众投资,我们的店堂不会像以后如此发达。)

It is a shame that children (should) be forced to beg in the streets in the capital city。

陆)用介词或连词表示虚拟。比方:with,without, under…condition, but for .

It's suggested that the school (should) organize an outing when spring comes。

And if one received a grape without having to provide her token in exchange at all, the other either tossed her own token at the researcher or out of the chamber, or refused to accept the slice of cucumber.(二零零七text 一)(假如1只猴子以致未曾用石头就能获取葡萄,另三只猕猴就会向研商职员扔石头,可能把石头扔出屋子,可能拒绝接受一片黄瓜。)

It is required that middle-schools students (should) take at least one-hour exercise every day。

那是比较健康和相比较轻巧辨认的虚拟语气,希望同学们多加演练。肖方方先生也目的在于广大的考生在复习的经过中把遭遇的拥有长难句都进展聚焦到一个台式机上,积攒自身的薄弱点,才具针对巩固。

⑵在下列动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用“should 动词原形”,should可回顾。那类动词有:insist(坚贞不屈), urge (催促), order(命令), command(命令), request(请求,须求), demand(必要),require(要求,需求)suggest(提议),advise(建议),propose(建议) , recommend(提出, 推荐) 等。

末尾,沪江报考学士祝全体考生报考研究生路上1切顺利。

The captain insisted that the wounded soldier (should) be sent to hospital at once。

新加坡航空公司线葡萄牙语雅思如何

The policeman demanded the thief (should) tell his name and address。

Doctors strongly recommend that fathers (should) be present at their baby's birth。

【记念小秘技】一个“持之以恒”和”催促”、三个“命令”, 几个“须求”, 多个“建议”。

⑶在含有advice, order, demand, proposal(提出) requirement, suggestion等名词的表语从句、同位语从句中,谓语动词用“should 动词原形”,should可粗略。

The governor gave order that the flood (should) be controlled before dark。

My suggestion is that the project (should) be completed by the end of the year。

在某些名词性从句中,谓语动词用“should 动词原形”或“should have done”,表示惊叹、意志等激情色彩,译为“竟然,居然”。

I am surprised /shocked that you should speak in such a way。

I find it astonishing that he should be so rude to his mum。

It is strange /surprising that she should not have been invited。

I am glad that your story should have won the first prize。

⑷在wish后的宾语从句中

一意味着未来的意思完成的大概性一点都比极小,wish后的宾语从句的谓语动词用should/would/could/ might 动词原形。

We wish the friendship between the two countries would last forever。

二意味着与当今真相相反的愿望,宾语从句的谓语动词用一般过去时(be动词用were)。

②He always wishes he were a millionaire and owned a big house and a sports car.

3意味着与过去事实相反的愿望,宾语从句的谓语动词用过去落成时。

③How he wished he hadn’t wasted too much time on playing computer games while at school.

⑸在would rather/would prefer后的宾语从句中

在would rather/would prefer后的宾语从句中,常用过去时表示与现时或未来真相相反的心愿,用过去做到时表示与过去实际相反的意愿。

⑹在would rather/would prefer从句中

①Frankly speaking, I would rather you came tomorrow. The manager isn’t available today。

②I would rather you had gone to the party with me last night. It was really wonderful。

③—Could I smoke here?

—I'd prefer it if you didn’t smoke in front of the children。

  1. 在as if/though 后的格局状语从句中,表示某种情况与以往的实情相反, 谓语动词用过去式;表示将要产生的事态“用情态动词 动词原形”;表示某种的情况有过去的谜底相反, 谓语动词用过去达成时。

The coach always treats the players as if they were his own children.

She was suffering from a bad cold. Her head felt as if it would burst。

Gary was behaving as though nothing had happened。

四.在in case, in order that目标状语从句中

在in case 携带的目标状语从句中,谓语动词用“should 动词原形”;在so that, in order that 等引导的目标状语从句中,谓语动词除了用“should 动词原形”外,还可用“might/could/would 动词原形”。

In case you should need any help, here’s my number。

In order that training should be effective it must be planned systematically。

I took a taxi so that I would/could/might be in time for the appointment。

  1. 在It is (high) time(that)…定语从句中,谓语用过去时或用should 动词原形。should不可省略。

It’s high time that we devoted/should devote our time to preparing for the coming exam。

  1. 在if only惊讶句中

if only代表“但愿……”,“倘诺……就好了”,句中的谓语动词要用虚拟语气。其重组的不二等秘书诀与wish后的宾语从句基本一样。

If only Xiao Hua’s mother were still alive!

If only I had known the answer when my teacher questioned me。

If only I could fly to the moon in Shenzhou Ⅷ spaceship。

  1. 在简约句中

⑴情态动词Would/could/might,表示说话人的礼貌或婉转的口吻,常用来平时对话中。

Would you be kind enough to show me the way to the post office? 您能或无法引导笔者去邮局的路?

Could you let me have your passport? 看看你的护照好吧?

Might I speak to you for a moment? 我能和您谈一下呢?(使用might比may更客气)

⑵表示祝福

“may 动词原形”表示祝福,经常把may置于句首,构成倒装语序。

May you succeed in the future!

May the friendship between us last long!

4. 注意事项

  1. 掺杂时间虚拟条件句中

一经if条件句表示的动作与主句表示的动作产生的年华差异样,从句和主句的谓语动词的款型要依据各自的年月来调治, 那种情状被称作“错综时间虚拟语气”或“混合虚拟语气”。

If America had not made wars on Iraq, the Iraqi people would be living a peaceful life now。

If I were you, I would have visited the museum yesterday.

If we didn’t have an exam tomorrow, my friends and I could be playing football now。

  1. 偶尔,只在标准句或主句中动用虚拟语气,而另壹分句用陈述语气。

If you should change your mind, do let me know。

Should anyone call (= If anyone calls), please tell them that I’m busy。

Can you read that form carefully, if you wouldn’t mind, and then sign it?

I would appreciate it ifyou call back this afternoon for the doctor's appointment.

—What would you do if it rains tomorrow?

—We have to carry it on, since we’ve got everything ready。

叁. 在部分平凡对话中,一些粗略句通常暗含虚拟的代表。句中的谓语动词用would/could/ should be等格局或should/would/could/might have been等格局。

It couldn’t be better. 这太好了。

That would be very nice. 太好了。

I couldn’t agree with you more. 笔者万分同意你的见地。

I wouldn’t have dreamed of it. 作者做梦也未曾想到啊!

How careless I was! I could have done better in the exam. 笔者太马虎了,笔者自然能够考得很好的。

汤姆 hasn’t arrived yet. I should have written down the address for him. 小编本应有把地点写下来的。

—How was you interview?

—It couldn’t have been better. Luckily, I found all the answers to questions。

—Shall I give you a ride as you live so far away?

4. 若insist表示“百折不挠说”,suggest代表“示意,申明”,其后的宾语从句用陈述语气。

The smile on the boy’s face suggested that he was happy to die for his country。

The man insisted that he had not stolen anything and (should) be set free immediately。

  1. 只要as if/though从句描述的是动真格的的情状,谓语动词则用陈述语气,而不用虚拟语气。

It looks as if it is going to rain。

It sounds as though she has been really ill。

  1. 在“hadbetter/wouldrather,wouldlike/love to, was/wereto havedonesth”表示过去梦想做某事,但其实未做。举例:

— Do you mind if I open the window?

—I’d rather you didn’t. I feel a bit cold。

  1. hadthought/hoped/meant/intended/expected/wanted/plannedthat 从句 表示主语过去尚未达成的心愿。

Weweretohavearrived at9:00thismorning,butImissedthefirst bus.

IhadhopedthatIwouldbeof some help to you, but you didn’t ask me。

—Lucy is crying in the corner now. Didyouscoldherforhercarelessness in her homework?

—Yes,butI’drathernothavedoneit. 作者假设不商量她就好了。

5. 精典名题导解

  1. (2008山东)Thank you for all your hard work last week. I don’t think we ______ it without you。

A. can manage B. could have managed C. could manage D. can have managed

考试场点解析:句中的介词短语without you表示一个即便的尺度,而时间状语last week注明句子陈述的剧情与过去的真相相反,因而最棒答案为B。

  1. (2008江西)What a pity! Considering his ability and experience, he ____ better。

A. need have done B. must have done

C. can have done D. might have done

考试场点解析:“What a pity!”暗意她的展现令人遗憾。鉴于他的技巧和阅历,他本来恐怕表述得越来越好,因而用might have done,最好答案为D。

  1. (二零零六年信阳市第1次质检) —I wish I ________ the meeting。

—But you didn’t。

考点解析:答语But you didn’t暗暗表示对方并未有临场议会。因而说话人说“作者真希望本身参与了那些会议。”在wish后带的宾语从句中 ,倘若表示与过去真相相反的希望应用过去到位时,因而最好答案为D。

  1. (四川省普通高中二零零六年结业班教学品质调查研商试验) —Why didn’t you come to 迈克's birthday party yesterday?

—Well, I________, but I forgot it。

A.should have B.must C.should D.must have

考试场点解析:答语意为“笔者本来应该去的,可是本人遗忘了”。should have done 表示“本来应该做某事,而未做”。作为简略,done 被略去,只保留should have,最棒答案为A。

  1. (二零零六年浙江张家口市高三调研课题)I ____ to go for a walk, but someone called and I couldn’t get way。

A. was planning B. had planned C. planned D. would plan

考试场点解析:句意为:小编原安排去转转,可是有人来访,作者无法走开。had planned to do sth表示过去未能落成的计划。最棒答案为B。

  1. (二〇一〇年浙江唐山市高三实验研究课题)I would like _______ you to my birthday party, but I was busy and forgot to call you。

A. to invite B. inviting C. to have invited D. having invited

考试场点解析:句意为:笔者当然想让你加入自个儿的生日舞会,但是因为忙,小编遗忘了“。would like to have done sth。表示“本来想做某事(而未做)”。最棒答案为C。

  1. (江苏省重点中学二〇〇八届高三第贰次联合考试)—Did you visit the famous cultural relics last month?

—No, we _____ visited it, but we spent too much time shopping。

A. could have B. must have C. can have D. ought to have

考试场点解析:句意为: “大家本来有时光旅行(文化神迹)的,但是大家在购物上海消防费了太多的小时”。 could have done代表“过去本来能够做某事(而未做) ”。最棒答案为A。

第83讲 倒装句

一. 考试大纲供给

凭仗考试大纲的渴求,考生必要通晓运用部分倒装和万事倒装的二种普及景色。

贰. 命题导向

目前的高等学校统招考试试题珍视是考试句子的不利语序、置于句首先的副词、短语和甄选连词

3。复习要点

  1. 总体倒装

在上面二种情景下,需把1切的谓语动词放在主语此前,构成整个倒装:

(1)在There be/seem/appear/live/stand/lie/fly/exist/remain等存在句中。比方:

Look, there's that bookshop I was telling you about。

Long ago there lived a king with his three lovely daughters。

(二)表示时间、地方和动作转移的副词如here、there、now、then、up、down、in、away、out等置于句首时,为使生动地讲述场景而选取倒装语序。此时,句子多用一般今后时或相似过去时。比如:

There goes the phone. I'll answer it。

There comes the bus!

Suddenly, in came a man with a mask on his face。

(3)Such作表语置于句首时。比方:

Such was Albert Einstein, a simple man and the 20th century's greatest scientist.

(四)直接引语的全套或部分位于句首时。举个例子:

“If you die, who will get your money?”asked Holmes。

(伍)表示位置的介词短语起初的语句。

In the center of the square stands a monument。

On the back wall hangs a portrait。

Inside the pyramids are burial rooms for the kings and queens。

(陆)为平衡句子结构,或使上下文衔接连贯,而将作表语的介词短语、形容词、副词或分词提到句首,引起倒装。比如:

Gone forever are the days when the Chinese people had to use foreign oil。

Seated on the grass are a group of students。

Lying about on the floor are books and magazines。

  1. 1部分倒装

在下列三种情状下,只把助动词、系动词或情态动词放在主语以前,构成都部队分倒装。

(一) little, never, not, seldom, neither, nor, rarely, seldom, by no means, at no time,under no circumstances, in no case等代表否认意义的单词和短语位于句首时。举个例子:

Little does he care about what others think。

Under no circumstances are you to leave the house。

Not a word did he say at the meeting yesterday。

(二) 在not…until…, no sooner...than..., scarcely/hardly...when..., not only...but also... neither...nor.。.等句式中。举例:

Not until he told me did I know the truth。

Hardly had she sat down when the phone rang。

Not only do the workers want a pay increase, they want reduced hours as well。

Neither does he drink nor smoke。

(三) 当only 修饰副词、介词短语或状语从句位于句首时。比如:

Only then did I find I have made a mistake。

(肆) 在 so/such …that…。从句中,当so 形容词/副词或such 名词位于句首时。比方:

So exhausted was she that she wanted to have a rest。

(5)今世表前边所说的情况也适用于另一位或事物时,常用so/as 系动词/助动词/情态动词 主语,表示“……也是……”。比如:

Times have changed and so have I。

Eve’s very tall, as was her mother。

(陆)当neither, nor位于句首, 表示前边否定的始末也适用与另壹个人或事物时,常用neither/nor 系动词/助动词/情态动词 主语,表示“……也不……”。举例:

They couldn’t understand it at the time, and nor could we。

(7)省略if的虚拟条件句,把助动词were、had、should提到主语前边时。比如:

Had it not been for your help, we shouldn't have achieved so much。

(八)as和though指引的迁就状语从句时。例如:

Child as he is, he knows a lot of things。

Try as she might, Sue couldn't get the door open。

Strange though it may seem, I like housework。

(九)当may放在句首,说明祝福时。例如:

May you succeed! 祝你成功!

四. 注意事项

  1. 当主语是人称代词而不是名词时,以容易副词早先的语句不倒装。比方:

Here you are。

Away they went。

  1. 当only修饰主语而不是修饰状语时,句子不倒装。比如:

Only you are responsible for what you will become in the future。

Only in this way can you learn English well。

  1. not 修饰主语而不是修饰动词时,句子不倒装。举个例子:

Not one of the students knew the answer。

4. 当前后八个出口人切磋的是壹模同样人、同一事时,常用so/as 主语 系动词/助动词/情态动词,不再动用主谓倒装。举例:

—I reminded you not to forget the appointment。

—So you did。

—You forgot your purse when you went out。

—Good heavens, so I did。

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